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Main achievements
Science in Cuba from 1902 to 1958 was weak, with small budgets. Nevertheless, some scientific were known in this period, most of them without official support and having to do great personal efforts.

Some of them are: Juan Tomas Roig and Julian Acuña (agriculture research), Nicolas Jose Gutierrez and Joaquin Albarran (great physicians) and specially Pedro Kouri, founder of Cuban Medical Parasitology and researcher of the tropical diseases.

Other names of great scientifics of that time are: Enrique Jose Varona (Philosopher and Educator), Don Bernardo Ortiz (encyclopedist, searcher of our cultural roots), Pablo Miguel y Merino, Manuel Francisco, Don Carlos de la Torre, Emilio Roig and Salvador Massip, among others. One of the most relevant results of the Cuban Revolution is the human formation and the professional and scientific development.

In 1962 a National Commission is created. It would be responsible for the formation of the Structure of the Science Academy of Cuba.
In this time, the first Technological Research Centers were created to process the production derived from the sugar cane, for the prospecting and development of the mineral resources and to give an impulse to other economy branches. The national Center of Scientific Research was created in the 60’s. It provided an important support to research in the field of Biology and other branches. The first medical research institutions were also created to improve health in the people and to support the promotion plans. In the 70’s,the fields of electronics and computing began to develop.

The Biologic field got positive results from 1981 on. Cuba stood up in the Inferon production, which made the Island one of the first countries in the world in this kind of production. In Biotechnology and medical pharmaceutical Industry began to develop. In 1986, with a new technology, Cuba made a vacuum against Meningitis Meningococcica, the only effective one in the world. Cuba also developed he ultramicroanalytic systems (SUMA), obtained the vacuum vs Hepatitis B, invented the policosanol (PPG), and the Recombinig Estreptoquinasa and produced a variety of antibodies. The scientific pole of West of the Capital was created between 1991 and 1992. It was aimed to biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the successful results of this experience as integrating way, new poles for the industry were created in Havana as well as in the provinces.

On April 21st, 1994, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA) was created. It consolidated the organization of such activities in the country.

Although the biomedical field has had more results, the efforts in research and development have been also very important. The solutions given by science related to new varieties of plants, bio fertilizer, crop micro propagation technologies, veterinaries vacuum, design of new machines to cane crop and solutions that have allowed the use of Cuban crude oil in thermoelectric plants and cement factories, which is very heavy and with high sulphur content. The scientific and technological development of our country is also in hands of our family doctors, production engineers, teachers, innovator workers, young from Young Technical Brigades, and in general, a great part of our people, which is, every day more, a people of men of science, as Fidel dreamed more than 40 years ago.
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Fragmentos del artículo “Cuba y el desarrollo científico tecnológico en el siglo XX” del Doctor Daniel Codorniú Pujals.
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